日本語タイトル:中学校の技術・家庭の男女共修化の長期的影響

Long-Term Consequences of Teaching Gender Roles: Evidence from Desegregating Industrial Arts and Home Economics in Japan

執筆者 原 ひろみ (日本女子大学)/Núria RODRÍGUEZ-PLANAS (City University of New York, Queens College)
発行日/NO. 2021年8月  21-E-072
研究プロジェクト 日本の労働市場に関する実証研究
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概要

日本では、1989年の中学校学習指導要領の改訂によって、必修科目である技術・家庭がそれまで男女別学であったのが、男女共修となった。本稿では、この男女共修化が家庭内ならびに労働市場における男女の役割に長期的な影響を与えたのかを、回帰不連続デザインという分析フレームワークを用いて検証した。分析の結果、男女共修世代の男性は、非共修世代の男性とくらべて、大人になってからの週末の家計生産時間が長いことが示された。一方、男女共修世代の女性は、非共修世代の女性より正社員で働く人の割合が統計的に有意に高く、かつ非正規労働者として働く割合が統計的に有意に減ったことが示された。以上の結果から、技術・家庭の男女共修化は、日本人男女の行動をジェンダー中立的に変えたことが示唆される。

概要(英語)

We explore whether a 1990 Japanese educational reform that eliminated gender-segregated and gender-stereotyped industrial arts and home economics classes in junior high schools led to behavioral changes among these students some two decades later when they were married and in their early forties. Using a Regression Discontinuity (RD) design and Japanese time-use data from 2016, we find that the reform had a direct impact on Japanese women's attachment to the labor force, which seems to have changed the distribution of gender roles within the household, as we observe both a direct effect of the reform on women spending more time in traditionally male tasks during the weekend and an indirect effect on their husbands, who spend more time in traditionally female tasks. We present suggestive evidence that women's stronger attachment to the labor force may have been driven by changes in beliefs regarding men's and women's gender roles. As for men, the reform only had a direct impact on their weekend time spent on household production if they were younger than their wives and had small children. In such relationships, the reform also had the indirect effect of reducing the time their wives spent on weekend household production without increasing the wives' labor-market attachment. Interestingly, the reform increased fertility only when it decreased wives' time spent on childcare. Otherwise, the reform delayed fertility.