JIP Database 2021

Japan Industrial Productivity Database 2021 (JIP Database 2021)

The Japan Industrial Productivity Database 2021 (JIP Database 2021) is the latest version of the JIP Database compiled in a collaborative effort between RIETI under its East Asian Industrial Productivity Project within the Raising Industrial Firm Productivity Program and Hitotsubashi University with the support of the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) project on "Service Sector Productivity in Japan" and the JSPS program "Constructing Data Infrastructure for the Humanities and Social Sciences."

The JIP Database 2021 comprises, for the period from 1994 to 2018, various types of annual data necessary for estimating total factor productivity (TFP) in 100 industries covering Japan's economy as a whole, including capital service input indices and capital costs, quality-adjusted labor service input indices and labor costs, nominal and real output and intermediate inputs, as well as growth accounting results, including estimates of TFP growth rates, and a decomposition of labor productivity improvements.

The JIP Database 2021 extends the JIP Database 2018 (released on March 31, 2019) by adding data for the years 2016 to 2018. In addition, it reflects newly obtained benchmark data and contains various other changes. As control totals of nominal values for the JIP 2021, benchmark year 2011 production-side data are used; however, since these data are available only from 1994 onward, the JIP 2021, like the JIP 2018, only covers the period from 1994 onward. The next release of the JIP, the JIP 2022, will attempt to extend the data backward as much as possible. Moreover, the SNA have been revised as a result of the release of reaggregated data from the Monthly Labour Survey, and the JIP 2021 incorporates this revision.

Meanwhile, in December 2019, the benchmark year for the SNA was updated to 2015, and on the production side, housing accommodation service business related to the sharing economy will be newly recorded, while with regard to capital investment, construction and repair (renovation and rebuilding) expenses will be newly recorded as investment, the recording of leases will be changed to a user-based approach, and "entertainment, literary and artistic originals" will be estimated. We will try to reflect these revisions from the next JIP release onward.

While the economy recovered relatively strongly in 2015–2018 under Abenomics, TFP growth, capital accumulation, and labor productivity growth were sluggish in many industries. In addition, average labor quality declined due to the large increase in the employment of women and the elderly in relatively low-wage, often part-time, jobs. The JIP Database 2021 covers this period and makes it possible to examine these issues in detail.

The following links provide notes (in Japanese) on the revisions made in the JIP Database 2018. However, for a more detailed explanation of the estimation methods, see Kyoji Fukao (ed.), "Service Sangyo no Seisansei to Nihon Keizai: JIP Database wo Mochiita Jissho Bunseki [Service Sector Productivity and the Japanese Economy: An Empirical Analysis Using the JIP Database," University of Tokyo Press, forthcoming (in Japanese).

The JIP Database 2021 was compiled by the following scholars.

Annual input-output tables

  • TAHARA, Shinji (Chiba University of Commerce)
  • MATSUURA, Toshiyuki (Keio University)
  • MAKINO, Tatsuji (Hitotsubashi University and RIETI)
  • KIM, YoungGak (Senshu University)
  • KWON, Hyeog Ug (Nihon University and RIETI)
  • FUKAO, Kyoji (Hitotsubashi University, IDE-JETRO, and RIETI)

Capital service input data

  • MIYAGAWA, Tsutomu (Gakushuin University and RIETI)
  • INUI, Tomohiko (Gakushuin University)
  • IKEUCHI, Kenta (RIETI Fellow)
  • ISHIKAWA, Takayuki (Hitotsubashi University and RIETI)
  • ISHIZUKI, Noriyuki (Keio University and RIETI)

Labor input data

  • TOKUI, Joji (Shinshu University and RIETI)
  • MAKINO, Tatsuji (Hitotsubashi University and RIETI)

Supplementary tables

  • ITO, Keiko (Chuo University): Share of workers by occupation
  • HANEDA, Sho (Nihon University): Share of workers by occupation
  • INUI, Tomohiko (Gakushuin University and RIETI): Regulation index
  • MATSUURA, Toshiyuki (Keio University): Outward FDI statistics

Investment and capital stock in intangible assets

  • MIYAGAWA, Tsutomu (Gakushuin University and RIETI)
  • TAKIZAWA, Miho (Gakushuin University)
  • TONOGI, Konomi (Rissho University)
  • ISHIKAWA, Takayuki (Hitotsubashi University and RIETI)

In earlier versions of the JIP Database, the following intangible assets -- research and development, mineral exploitation and appraisal, and computer software -- were included in the supplementary tables. In the JIP Database 2021, like in the JIP 2018, these are now included in the capital service input data. As for extending the estimation of the remaining intangible assets, we aim to do so by the end of FY2021.

The original version of the JIP Database -- the ESRI/Hi-Stat JIP Database 2003 -- was compiled in collaboration with the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Cabinet Office. Moreover, for the compilation of the labor data, we requested the National Statistics Center to prepare custom-made aggregate statistics based on the Employment Status Survey, financial support for which was provided through the support for custom-made statistics offered by Hitotsubashi University under the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science's "Program for Constructing Data Infrastructure for the Humanities and Social Sciences." We would herewith like to express our gratitude.

The key characteristics of the JIP Database 2021, like earlier versions, include the following:

  • Both the database itself and the underlying original data are defined as public property and thus, in principle, will be made available to the general public. (Some of the detailed data will be published on the website of the Institute of Economic Research of Hitotsubashi University.)
  • The JIP Database 2021 forms part of the EU KLEMS project, the EU's World Input-Output Database (WIOD) project, the Asia KLEMS project, and the World KLEMS project led by Harvard University. By estimating TFP by industry for the major EU member states, the United States, South Korea, and other countries, these projects make possible international productivity comparisons by industry, including for Japan.

Kyoji Fukao
Tsutomu Miyagawa

Estimation Methods

As mentioned above, this version is an extension of the JIP Database 2018. Therefore, links to the estimation methods for the JIP Database 2018 are provided here.

Explanation of the Estimation Methods of the JIP Database up to 2015

Data download

1. Input-output tables (coming soon)

2. Capital input (coming soon)

3. Labor input (coming soon)

4. Growth accounting [Excel: 3.5MB]

updated April 6, 2021

  1. 1) List of contents
  2. 2) Definition of aggregated sectors
  3. 3) Real gross output (million yen, in chain-linked 2011 prices)
  4. 4) Nominal gross output (million yen)
  5. 5) Real intermediate inputs (million yen, in chain-linked 2011 prices)
  6. 6) Nominal intermediate inputs (million yen)
  7. 7) Real value added (million yen, in chain-linked 2011 prices)
  8. 8) Nominal value added (million yen)
  9. 9) Labor input index (Divisia index, 2011=1.000)
  10. 10) Hours worked index (2011=1.000)
  11. 11) Labor quality index (2011=1.000)
  12. 12) Nominal labor costs (million yen)
  13. 13) Capital service input (Divisia index, 2011=1.000)
  14. 14) Real net capital stock index (2011=1.000)
  15. 15) Capital quality index (Divisia index, 2011=1.000)
  16. 16) Nominal capital service input (nominal rental price*real net capital stock, million yen)
  17. 17) Cost share of each production factor (including intermediate inputs)
  18. 18) Cost share of each production factor (excluding intermediate inputs)
  19. 19) Growth rate of real gross output
  20. 20) Contribution of intermediate inputs (gross output basis)
  21. 21) Contribution of hours worked (gross output basis)
  22. 22) Contribution of labor quality (gross output basis)
  23. 23) Contribution of real net capital stock (gross output basis)
  24. 24) Contribution of capital quality (gross output basis)
  25. 25) TFP growth rate (gross output basis)
  26. 26) Growth accounting (gross output basis)
  27. 27) Growth rate of real value added
  28. 28) Contribution of hours worked (value added basis)
  29. 29) Contribution of labor quality (value added basis)
  30. 30) Contribution of real net capital stock (value added basis)
  31. 31) Contribution of capital quality (value added basis)
  32. 32) TFP growth rate (value added basis)
  33. 33) Growth accounting (value added basis)
  34. 34) Labor productivity growth rate (value added/total hours worked)
  35. 35) Growth rate of total hours worked
  36. 36) Contribution of labor quality (value added basis, identical to VConLC)
  37. 37) Contribution of capital stock per total hours worked
  38. 38) Contribution of capital quality (identical to VConKC)
  39. 39) TFP growth by industry (value added basis, identical to TFPva)
  40. 40) Growth accounting (labor productivity growth=value added/total hours worked)

5. Supplementary tables (coming soon)

6. Investment and capital stock in intangible assets (coming soon)