Technological innovation is expected to accelerate in many fields such as financial services, information/communications, and life sciences. In such an environment, what can a nation do to build an economy that leads the world in innovation? Many cases have been observed that important innovation is born in a market in which free entry and free enterprise are guaranteed. In order to foster such a market, various rules and institutional arrangements need to be built into the economy. From this viewpoint, in the present program, the design of new types of economic and industrial policies is investigated.