The main subject of this research project for this period is development of multilateral rules on digital trade. The Internet now is an indispensable means of trade in real goods and services, and in the age of the Industry 4.0, digital information including Big Data is subject to trade in the same manner as goods. Such transnational expansion of the digital economy compels urgent development of international rules that assure free and non-discriminatory digital trade. The rules on this subject have been developed mainly in the context of regional economic integration (FTAs, EPAs), however, lately we have recognized the necessity for rule-making in multilateral forums, in particular, the WTO, for this purpose. Against this background, in this project, members will engage in basic research on digital trade rules, starting with studies on regulatory impediments to the free flow of data and comparative analysis of digital trade rules in FTAs/EPAs.
This project also continues the coverage of studies on the international economic law on competitive neutrality and WTO case law from the preceding period.
December 18, 2017 - November 30, 2019
Major Research Results
RIETI Discussion Papers
"Generating a Reform of the BRI from the Inside: Japan's Contribution Via Soft Law Diplomacy" (Alisher UMIRDINOV)
"Restrictions on outbound data transfer based on Government Access in foreign countries -The current situation, Regulation by International Trade Law and Implications for DFFT-" (WATANABE Shota)
RIETI Policy Discussion Papers
"[WTO Case Review Series No.30] United States – Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil Aircraft (Second Complaint): Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by the European Union – Subsidies of which Adverse Effects must be Eliminated" (UMEJIMA Osamu)
"[WTO Case Review Series No.29] Brazil – Certain Measures Concerning Taxation and Charges (DS472, DS497): Scope of the WTO law on Discriminatory Tax Exemption Measures" (TOJO Yoshizumi)
"[WTO Case Review Series No.28] Indonesia – Importation of Horticultural Products, Animals and Animal Products (DS477/478): Limiting effect on importation and justifications regarding integral import measures, relationship between Agriculture Agreement Article 4.2 and GATT Article 11" (SHIMIZU Mari)
"[WTO Case Review Series No.27] United States – Tuna Labeling Case (compliance procedure) (DS381/RW2): Article 2.1 of TBT Agreement and application of the 'calibration'" (HEIKE Masahiro)
"[WTO Case Review Series No.26] European Union – Measures Affecting Tariff Concessions on Certain Poultry Meat Products (WT/DS492): Characteristics of the WTO Panel's Interpretation of Articles XIII and XXVIII of the GATT" (HIRAMI Kenta)
"[WTO Case Review Series No.25] Indonesia—Measures Concerning the Importation of Chicken Meat and Chicken Products (WT/DS484): Interface between Halal Requirement and Free Trade" (SEKINE Takemasa)