Faculty Fellow

Program Director
Professor Emeritus, Hitotsubashi University

Activities at RIETI


Policy and Institutions for Innovation

Research Projects


1990 Ph.D., Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1980 M.S., Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1975 B.E., Engineering, the University of Tokyo


2015 - Present Professor Emeritus, Hitotsubashi University
2015 - 2023 Professor, Faculty of Economics, Tokyo Keizai University
2004 - 2008 Director and Professor, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University
1997 - 2015 Professor, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University
1996 - 1997 Professor, Institute of Business Research, Hitotsubashi University
1992 - 1996 Professor, Faculty of Economics, Seikei University
1990 - 1992 Director of the Office for Russia and Eastern Europe, MITI
1986 - 1990 Economist, The World Bank
1975 - 1992 Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)

He served as a secretariat for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Working Group on Trade and Competition.
He is a visiting research scholar at the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) and an economic advisor to the Japan Patent Office (JPO).
He served as a member of the European Patent Office (EPO)'s Economic and Scientific Advisory Board.

Selected Publications and Papers

Recent Publications

  • "Dynamic Effects of Patent Pools: Evidence from Inter Generational Competition in the Optical Disc Industry", with Tomoyuki Shimbo and Naotoshi Tsukada, Review of Industrial Organization, 2024, Feb. (
  • "Information constraints and examination quality in patent offices: The effect of initiation lags," with Isamu Yamauchi, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2022, 82
  • "The impact of science-intensive drugs on longevity and cure rate: Evidence from new prescription drugs launched in Japan," with Junichi Nishimura、and Mariko Yoneyama-Hirozane, Journal of Japanese and International Economies, 2022, 64, 1-16
  • "Impacts of COVID-19 on R&D and patenting activities in Japan: Demand shocks, application delay, and patent option value" with Isamu Yamauchi and Daisuke Miyazaki, 2022, in Resilience and Ingenuity: Global Innovation Responses to Covid-19 (edited by Carsten Fink, Yann Ménière, Andrew Toole and Reinhilde Veugelers)
  • "How Do Inventors Respond to Financial Incentives? Evidence from Unanticipated Court Decisions on Employee Inventions in Japan," with Koichiro Onishi, Hideo Owan, Journal of Law and Economics, 2021 vol. 64,301-339
  • "Making university and industry research collaboration: Evidence from co-inventions in Japan," with Junichi Nishimura, Shinichi Akaike, Mitsuaki Hosono, 2021, Science and Public Policy, Volume 49, Issue 2, 268-288
  • "Graduate Education and Long-term Inventive Performance: Evidence from Undergraduates' Choices during Recessions," with Koichiro Onishi, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 2020, Volume29, Issue3, 465-491
  • "Effects of early patent publication on knowledge dissemination: Evidence from U.S. patent law reform," with Yoshimi Okada, Information Economics and Policy, 2020, 51, C, 465-491
  • Drug discovery in Japan: Exploring the sources of breakthrough drugs from Japan, written and edited, Springer, March 2019, 333 pages
  • "Impact of initial seeds on the growth of biotechnology startups: evidence from the U.S. and Japan," with Junichi Nishimura, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2019, Vol. 28, Issue 7, 695-721
  • "Initial public offering and financing of biotechnology start-ups: evidence from Japan," with Honjo Yuji, 2018, Research Policy, vol. 47, Issue 1,180-193
  • "Making the Patent Scope Consistent with the Invention: Evidence from Japan", with Okada Yoshimi, Yusuke Naito, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 2018, Vol. 27, Issue 3, 607-625
  • "Global spread of pharmaceutical patent protection: micro evidence from the international equivalents of drug patents in Japan," with Yoshimi Okada, 2017, Millennial Asia, vol. 8, April, pp. 26-47
  • "Openness and innovation in the US: Collaboration form, idea generation and implementation," with Walsh John P., You-Na Lee, Research Policy, 2016, Volume 45, Issue 8, 1660-1671
  • "An economic analysis of deferred examination system: Evidence from a policy reform in Japan," with Isamu Yamauchi, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2015, 39, 19-28
  • "Does the outsourcing of prior art search increase the efficiency of patent examination?" with Isamu Yamauchi, Research Policy, 2015, 44, 1601-1614
  • "Determinants of International Research Collaboration: Evidence from International Co-inventions in Asia and Major OECD," with Naotoshi Tsukada, Asian Economic Policy Review, 2015, Vol 10, Issue 1, 96-119
  • "Contribution of postdoctoral fellows to fast-moving and competitive scientific research," with Masatsura Igami and John Walsh, Journal of Technology Transfer, August 2014.
  • "Patent Statistics as an Innovation Indicator" in Hall, Bronwyn H. and Nathan Rosenberg, eds., Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Vol. 2, Oxford: Elsevier, 2010.
  • "Does Strong Patent Protection Facilitate International Technology Transfer?: Some Evidence from Licensing Contracts of Japanese Firms," Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 34, No.2, April 2009.
  • "21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change" Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2009 (coeds. with Masayuki Kondo, Kenneth Flamm, and Charles Wessner),
  • "The structure and the emergence of essential patents for standards: Lessons from three IT standards". In Uwe Cantner, Jean-Luc Gaffard, Lionel Nesta eds., Schumpeterian Perspectives on Innovation, Competition and Growth, Springer, 2009
  • "Determinants of Firm Boundaries: Empirical Analysis of the Japanese Auto Industry from 1984 to 2002," with Akira Takeishi and Yoshihisa Noro, June 2008, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, June 2008, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 187-206
  • "Assessing the R&D Management of a Firm in Terms of Speed and Science Linkage: Evidence from the US Patents," Spring 2007, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Vol. 16, No. 1, 129-156
  • "R&D and Market Value of Japanese Firms in the 1990s," June 2006, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Vol. 20, No. 2, 155-176
  • "How Do the Speed, Science Linkage, Focus and New Entry Matter in IT Inventions?"February 2006, Carine Peeters and Bruno Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie (eds.), Economic and Management Perspectives on Intellectual Property Rights, Palgrave, 171-198
  • "The Incidence of Cross-licensing: A Theory and New Evidence on the Firm and Contract Level Determinants," with Hyeog Ug Kwon, November 2006, Research Policy, Volume 35, Issue 9, 1347-1361
  • "Determinants of the Introduction of Stock Options by Japanese Firms: Analysis from Incentive and Selection Perspectives," November 2005, Journal of Business, Vol. 78, No. 6, 2289-2315
  • "Determinants of High-royalty Contracts and the Impact of Stronger Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Japan," June 2005, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 233-254
  • "The Consortium Standard and Patent Pools," May 2004, Keizai Kenkyu, Vol. 55, No.4, pp. 345-357


Japanese Economic Association
Econometric Society
The Japan Society of International Economics
Intellectual Property Association of Japan
Japan Association for Applied Economics

Editor, Hitotsubashi Business Review