RIETI Report November 10, 2023

Artificial Intelligence and Society: Philosophy of Fallibility

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In this edition, we are presenting a series by RIETI Faculty Fellow KOBAYASHI Keiichiro on “Artificial Intelligence and Society: Philosophy of Fallibility.” In this two-year series, Kobayashi tackle issues of how we live now and in the future with artificial intelligence continuing to develop and what kind of common philosophy we need to cultivate. He looks at the topics of philosophy of fallibility siting philosophers such as Rawls, Hegel, Hayek and more.

We hope you will enjoy it. If you have any feedback, we would love to hear from you (news-info@rieti.go.jp).
Editors of RIETI Report (Facebook: @en.RIETI / Twitter: @RIETIenglish / URL: https://www.rieti.go.jp/en/)

This month's featured article

Artificial Intelligence and Society: Philosophy of Fallibility

KOBAYASHI KeiichiroFaculty Fellow, RIETI

How should we live our lives at present and into the near future as artificial intelligence (AI) continues to develop and spread? What is an appropriate framing for our future vision of society and what kind of public philosophy can we cultivate?

I will first touch upon the theory of strong isomorphism. It regards both the development of human intelligence and the expansion of new knowledge due to AI as evolving with a similar mechanism. It means that the development of intelligence takes place in an ever-changing universe. Under the modern scientific worldview, human reason was explained as something that seeks to understand the mechanisms of the physical world from the outside. Even under the mechanistic worldview that was prevalent around the 19th century, both the universe and humans were conceived as "ex-machina" structures. However, reason, which understands and controls the mechanisms, was thought to be outside of the physical universe. This can be compared to a situation where a physicist is observing the inside of the laboratory from the outside. However, with the arrival of AI, we are faced with the reality that even reason exists within the physical universe.

We called this new worldview, which regards the development of human intelligence (as well as the expansion of knowledge due to AI) as one of the processes of forming order that happen in the universe" the theory of strong isomorphism (see The Relativity of Intelligence: How AI will change the worldview (available in Japanese) by Nishiyama Keita, Matsuo Yutaka, and Kobayashi Keiichiro). The notion that reason looks at the physical universe from the outside, which has been an implicit premise under the modern worldview, is falling apart.

To read the full text:

Part 2: Dystopian Outlook on AI

Part 3: Challenges Faced by Liberal Political Philosophy—Rawlsian Political Philosophy

Part 4: Virtue Cannot Exist Independently from Justice

Part 5: Hegelian Philosophy—History as Evolution of Reason

Part 6: Totalitarianism as a Pathological Manifestation of Reason

Part 7: Collapse of the Grand Narrative

Part 8: Thinking in Terms of Mathematical Formulas

Part 9: AI's Impact on the Relationship between Innovation and Justice—Reason Expanded by AI

Part 10: Relationship between Innovation and the Social System—Abstract

Part 11: What is Innovation?

Part 12: Do Selfish Individuals Implement Innovations Determined by Social Contracts?

Part 13: Moderate Comprehensive Doctrine

Part 14: Considering the Theory of Innovation-Driven Justice in Terms of Mathematical Equations

Part 15: From Economic Growthism to Intellectual Growth

Part 16: System of Justice as an Intergenerational Asset—Time Inconsistency Problem

Part 17: System of Justice as an Asset

Part 18: Fallibility as a Reason for Guaranteeing Freedom—Hayek's Knowledge Theory

Part 19: Innovation and a New School of Economics

Part 20: From the Quest for Infallibility to Fallibility

Part 21: AI and Anti-Data Monopoly Policy

Part 22: Fallibility and Freedom

Part 23: Will Superhumans Eradicate Ordinary Human Beings?

Column: Philosophy of Fallibility and Pragmatism

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