Reciprocal Versus Unilateral Trade Liberalization: Comparing individual characteristics of supporters

Author Name TOMIURA Eiichi  (Faculty Fellow, RIETI) /ITO Banri  (Harvard University / Senshu University) /MUKUNOKI Hiroshi  (Gakushuin University) /WAKASUGI Ryuhei  (Faculty Fellow, RIETI)
Creation Date/NO. November 2014 14-E-067
Research Project Empirical Analysis of Trade Policy Preferences at the Individual Level in Japan
Download / Links


Reciprocity has been an influential principle leading actual trade liberalization, while unilateral trade liberalization has been politically unpopular in spite of gains from trade. Based on a survey of 10,816 individuals in Japan, we disaggregate people into four categories by their opinions on import liberalization and reciprocity. People working in the import-competing protected sector (agriculture in the Japanese case) tend to demand not only protection but also reciprocity in trade liberalization. Unilateral free traders are found among people working in non-agriculture sectors, in managerial occupations, or who are above the retirement age. We also confirm the effect of education on protectionism.