Glass Ceilings or Sticky Floors? An analysis of the gender wage gap across the wage distribution in Japan

Author Name HARA Hiromi (Japan Women's University)
Creation Date/NO. November 2016 16-E-099
Research Project Transformation of the Japanese Labor Market : Toward a labor market for all
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This study examines the gender wage gap across the wage distribution in Japan using large sample data for 1990, 2000, and 2014. The results of the Firpo-Fortin-Lemieux decomposition show that the part of the observed gender gap that is not explained by gender differences in human capital is larger at the top and at the bottom of the wage distribution, indicating that both a glass ceiling and a sticky floor exist for women in the Japanese labor market. The sticky floor could be explained by female workers being segregated into non-career track jobs, while the glass ceiling could be due to gender differences in the quality of education. Furthermore, this study also finds that while the gender wage gap has been declining from 1990 to 2014 at all quantiles of the wage distribution, the decline in gender gap of human capital attributes contributes to it. However, the glass ceiling and the sticky floor phenomena, observed since 1990, persist.

Published: Hara, Hiromi, 2018. "The gender wage gap across the wage distribution in Japan: Within- and between-establishment effects," Labour Economics, Vol. 53, pp. 213-229