Parenting Methods, Sense of Ethics, Happiness Quotient, and Income Creation:Empirical research in Japan

Author Name NISHIMURA Kazuo (Faculty Fellow, RIETI) / YAGI Tadashi (Doshisha University)
Creation Date/NO. July 2016 16-J-048
Research Project Fundamental Research for Sustainable Economic Growth in Japan
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In this research, we conducted a questionnaire survey on Japanese adults to reflect on the kinds of parenting methods they were subjected to as children and analyzed how these methods affected their future. Using the major factor method, we conducted a principal factor analysis of the responses to 20 questions on the child's relationship with his or her parents during childhood. We derived "interest," "trust," "norm," and "independence" as four factors and added two more indexes: "experience of sharing time with parents" and "strictness of parents." Subsequently, we classified the parenting methods into six types: (1) Supportive, (2) Strict (Tiger), (3) Indulgent, (4) Uninvolved, (5) Abusive, and (6) Average. Using these categories, we compared the average incomes of these children (namely, the adults who took this survey), their happiness quotient, and educational attainment for each of the six types and found that "Supportive" shows the highest score with regard to income, happiness quotient, and educational attainment, whereas "Abusive" shows the lowest score on all three aspects. We also compared the six types of parenting methods in terms of the sense of ethics and found that "Supportive" shows the desired results in every aspect.

Published: Nishimura, Kazuo, and Tadashi Yagi, 2017. "How parenting affects children's futures: Empirical study in Japan," Journalism and Mass Communication, Vol. 7(1), pp. 35-45.