Real Conditions and Themes of Gender Diversity in Management in Japan, China, and South Korea: 605 results from the "Corporate Survey of Human Resource Utilization (China and Korea)"

Author Name ISHIZUKA Hiromi  (Sanno University)
Creation Date/NO. February 2014 14-J-010
Research Project Impact of Diversity and Work-life Balance
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Japan, China, and South Korea, as neighboring countries in northeast Asia, have a Confucian-rooted orientation toward the separation of labor among women and men, and they share the perception of having gender disparities in the workplace. Hereafter, their various roles in serving the world economy will increase, as will corporate expansion and employee movements.

The purpose of this paper is to use the company survey data of the three countries to compare the real conditions of gender diversity in management, and to aid the causes of female-male human resource utilization and economic revitalization.

The main results are as follows. 1) The female labor participation rate in Japan is not low, but large fluctuations in working conditions are a problem. Promotions to the position of chief of a subsection in one's late 30s are considered as a "late promotion," but many women resign before that point. 2) In the companies located in China's urban areas, the ratio of women among the employee, management, and administration layers are higher than that of Japan or Korea. The system has almost no special provisions protective of women, work hours are not excessive, and continuous employment are common. However, a mandatory retirement policy that treats men and women differently and the one-child policy have created a unique backdrop. 3) The female labor participation rate in Korea is low, and work interruptions and resignations among women are more common in Korea than in Japan. On the other hand, women are promoted earlier in their careers. After the introduction of the Affirmative Action system, the rate of female employment increased.