Since the founding of the people's Republic of China in 1949, great progress has been made in science and technology in China. Looking at the evolution of national comprehensive planning and specific countermeasures, the government is coordinating policies for the governance system of science and technology in a timely manner, under the guidance of national goals. In the early stages before 1949, the national goal of industrialization generated advances in scientific and technological progress, accumulating basic scientific research on the "whole nation system" under the planned economy. After the reform and opening up of the economy since 1978, scientific and technological progress has contributed to the market economy and improved the status of scientific and technological undertakings. In addition to emphasizing the economic significance of science and technology, China also placed an emphasis on the R&D investment in science and technology in the long run. In the near future, in the current stage of national goals in the complex international environment, scientific and technological progress will depend on the efficiency of relevant policy and institutional design, which will optimize the governance system of science and technology, and promote the improvement of China's international competitiveness. Today, under the decision to grasp the "time lag" of the flow of scientific and technological resources and the development of science and technology, the proposal of the “new whole nation system” for the science and technology governance system in 2021 is characterized by further trial and error in the institutional design.