Using the individual data of an online questionnaire survey conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI), we empirically analyzed the relationship between affiliation-oriented OCB (behavior that benefits the organization), challenge-oriented OCB (reporting fraud), performance, and personal attributes and personality traits.
First, there were no financial returns for the two OCBs. On the other hand, those who performed two OCBs were significantly more satisfied with their work.
Next, we analyzed the following determinants of OCB; (1) personal attributes and personality traits, (2) the Japanese employment system, (3) human resource development to foster good inter-organization / interpersonal relationships, job traits, and well-being.
As a result, we confirmed that (1) women and executives, agreeableness, grit, locus of control, and positive reciprocity are more positive for both OCBs, (2) the conventional Japanese employment system (long-term employment, internal promotion, etc.) has a positive correlation with both OCBs, (3) Helping each other in the workplace, ease of communication with superiors and colleagues, jobs with high skill diversity and task completion rates, receiving proper evaluations, and working with enthusiasm, are all positively correlated with the two OCBs.
These results suggest that Japanese companies which have taken OCB as a natural obligation should consciously foster OCB by reaffirming the determinants of OCB as the Japanese employment system is at a turning point.