|Author Name||YAMAGUCHI Shintaro (University of Tokyo) / ITO Hirotake (Keio Research Institute at SFC) / NAKAMURO Makiko (Keio University)|
|Creation Date/NO.||October 2020 20-E-079|
|Research Project||Establishing Evidence-Based Policy Making in Japan|
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We estimate month-of-birth effects on cognitive and noncognitive skills, as well as factors relevant to skill formation. Our estimates indicate that younger students in a given grade cohort have lower cognitive and noncognitive skills. To shed light on the underlying mechanisms, we also examine children's time use and interpersonal relationships. We ﬁnd evidence of compensatory investment in cognitive skills by younger children, however, they are also more likely to have poor-quality relationships with their classmates and teachers, which may harm the long-term development of noncognitive skills. Our ﬁndings on skill formation have implications for efﬁciency and equity.