RIETI Policy Symposium

Innovation Process and Performance: Findings and lessons from inventors surveys in Japan, the U.S., and Europe (Handouts)

Information

  • Time and Date:
    09:45 - 18:00, Friday January 11, 2008
  • Venue:
    Otemachi Sankei Plaza
    1-7-2 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Tokyo Sankei Bldg. 3F)
  • Language:
    Japanese/English (with simultaneous interpretation)
  • Handouts

    Opening Remarks

    FUJITA Masahisa's photo

    FUJITA Masahisa (President and Chief Research Officer, RIETI / Professor, Konan University / Adjunct Professor, Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University)

    Bio

    Professor Fujita served as Professor of the Institute of Economic Research at Kyoto University; President of the Institute of Developing Economies - JETRO (2003-'07); and Professor in the Department of Economics/Regional Science at the University of Pennsylvania. His research and teaching interests are urban economics, regional economics, and spatial economics. He holds a Ph.D. in Regional Science from the University of Pennsylvania. Major works: The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade (with P. Krugman and A. J. Venables), MIT Press, 1999; Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Regional Growth (with J. Thisse), Cambridge University Press, 2002; The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics: Spatial Economics , vol. 1, 2 (editor), Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2005; Regional Integration in East Asia: From the Viewpoint of Spatial Economics (editor), Palgrave Macmillan, 2007
    Profile

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    Part 1: Keynote Speech and Presentations (1)

    Session Chair: KODAMA Fumio's photo

    Session Chair: KODAMA Fumio (Professor of Graduate School of Engineering Management [MOT Program], Shibaura Institute of Technology / Professor Emeritus, the University of Tokyo)

    Bio

    Prior to his current positions, Dr. Kodama served as a Professor at the University of Tokyo (Research Center of Advanced Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, and Director at Research Center of Advanced Economic Engineering) from 1994-2003. Previously, he taught at the Graduate School of Policy Science at Saitama University (now National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies) in 1984-'93. In addition to teaching, he has worked as Director-in-Research at the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) in Science and Technology Agency in 1988-'91. He was also Adjunct Professor at the National Center for Science and Information Systems (NACSIS) in 1995-'99, Visiting Professor at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1991-'92, Visiting Professor at STS (Science, Technology, and Society) Program in Stanford University (1992-'93). Dr. Kodama was a Faculty Fellow at RIETI from 2001-'06. Dr. Kodama received his Ph.D. in Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1974. Major works: Analyzing Japanese High Technology: the Techno-Paradigm Shift , (London: Pinter Publishers, 1991), the Japanese version of which received the 1991 Sakuzo Yoshino Prize; Emerging Patterns of Innovation: Sources of Japan's Technological Edge , (Harvard Business School Press, 1995); Bransocmb L., Kodama F. and Florida R. (eds.), Industrializing Knowledge: University-Industry Linkages in Japan and the United States , (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1999); Bransocmb L., Kodama F., New Strategies for New Challenges: Corporate Innovation in the United States and Japan , (Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999); and, F. Kodama, "Technology Management and Strategy," (Tokyo, OHM Publishing, 2007).He is also a recipient of the 1991 Science and Technology Minister's Award for Research Excellence; Editor of Research Policy ; Member of Japanese Academy of Engineering; President of Japan Society for Science Policy and R&D Management, and; President of Japan MOT Society.

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    Keynote Speech 1 "Determinants of innovative performance: Insights from economics"

    Bronwyn H. HALL's photo

    Bronwyn H. HALL (Professor, Graduate School, Economics Faculty, University of California, Berkeley / Professor of Economics of Technology and Innovation, University of Maastricht, Netherlands)

    Bio

    rofessor Hall is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Institute for Fiscal Studies, London. She is also the founder and a partner of TSP International, an econometric software firm. She received a B.A. in Physics from Wellesley College in 1966 and a Ph.D. in Economics from Stanford University in 1988. Professor Hall has published articles on the economics and econometrics of technical change in journals such as Econometrica , the American Economic Review , the Rand Journal of Economics , and Research Policy . Her current research includes comparative analysis of the U.S. and European patent systems, the use of patent citation data for the valuation of intangible (knowledge) assets, comparative firm-level investment and innovation studies (the G-7 economies), measuring the returns to R&D and innovation at the firm level, analysis of technology policies such as R&D subsidies and tax incentives, and of recent changes in patenting behavior in the semiconductor and computer industries. She has also made substantial contributions to applied economic research via the creation of software for econometric estimation and of firm-level datasets for the study of innovation, including the widely used NBER dataset for U.S. patents.

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    Presentation 1 "Main findings from inventors survey (1): Commercialization of R&D results"

    NAGAOKA Sadao's photo

    NAGAOKA Sadao (Research Counselor, RIETI / Director and Professor, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University)

    Bio

    Professor Nagaoka has been Director (since April 2004) and Professor (since 1997) at the Institute of Innovation Research at Hitotsubashi University. Formerly he served as Professor in the Institute of Business Research at Hitotsubashi University (1996-'97), Professor in the Faculty of Economics at Seikei University (1992-'96) and Director of the Office for Russia and Eastern Europe at MITI (presently METI)(1990-'92). He obtained his Ph.D. in Economics in 1990 and M.S. in Management in 1980, both from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and his B.E. in Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1975. His fields of specialization are innovation and industrial organization. Recent works: "Assessing the R&D Management of Firms by Patent Citation: Evidence from the US Patents," 2006, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy , Spring 2007, vol. 16; "The incidence of cross-licensing: A theory and new evidence on the firm and contract level determinants," (with Hyeog Ug Kwon) Research Policy , vol. 35, no. 9, November 2006, pp. 1347-1361
    Profile

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    Presentation 2 "Main findings from inventors survey (2): Invention process - knowledge resources and collaborations"

    John WALSH's photo

    John WALSH (Associate Professor, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology)

    Bio

    Dr. Walsh teaches and does research on science, technology, and innovation, using a sociological perspective that focuses on organizations and work to explain how research organizations respond to changes in their policy environment. His recent work includes studies of university-industry linkages in the U.S. and Japan, the effects of research tool patents on biomedical researchers, and country and industry differences in the role of patents in firm strategy. His work has been published in Science , Research Policy , Social Studies of Science , and Management Science . His work has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, the Matsushita Foundation and the Japan Foundation, and he has done consulting for the National Academy of Sciences, the OECD, the European Commission, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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    General Comments

    Richard R. NELSON's photo

    Richard R. NELSON (George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs, Business and Law, Emeritus, Columbia University / Director, Center for Science Technology and Global Development, The Earth Institute at Columbia University)

    Bio

    Dr. Nelson is George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs, Business, and Law, Emeritus, at Columbia University and Director of the Program on Science Technology, and Global Development at the Columbia Earth Institute. He also is Visiting Professor at the University of Manchester. His research has concentrated on the processes of long-run economic change, with particular emphasis on technological advances and on the evolution of economic institutions. Some of his publications include Technology, Institutions, and Economic Growth (Harvard University Press 2005), The Sources of Economic Growth (Harvard University Press 2000), Sources of Industrial Leadership (Cambridge University Press 1999), National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford University Press 1993), An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change (Harvard University Press 1985, reprint), and many others. Dr. Nelson holds a B.A. from Oberlin College. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1956 from Yale University. From 1956-'57 he was an Assistant Professor at Oberlin College, and from 1968-'86 he was a Professor at Yale University. He has also served as an economist at the Rand Corporation (1957-'60, 1963-'68) and as a senior member at the Council of Economic Advisers (1961-'63). Between 1981 and 1986 he served as the Director of the Institution for Social and Policy Studies.

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    Q&A

    Part 1: Keynote Speech and Presentations (2)

    Session Chair: OKADA Yosuke's photo

    Session Chair: OKADA Yosuke (Professor of Economics, Hitotsubashi University / Chief Researcher, Competition Policy Research Center, Japan Fair Trade Commission)

    Bio

    Prior to his current positions, Dr. Okada held many posts including Associate Professor, Shinshu University (1992-2000); Senior Research Fellow, Office of Pharmaceutical Industry Research, Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) (1999); Visiting Fellow, National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Science and Technology Agency (1998); Visiting Fellow, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick (1995-'97); Visiting Research Fellow, Economic Research Institute, Economic Planning Agency (1993-'95). He joined Hitotusbashi University as an Associate Professor in 2000, and has been a Professor of Economics there since 2006. He obtained his B.A. and Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Tokyo. Current research themes include: competition policy and innovation, regulatory policy in telecommunications and pharmaceutical R&D and biotechnology

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    Keynote Speech 2 "Inventors and Invention Processes in Europe: Policy Implications from the PatVal-EU Survey"

    Alfonso GAMBARDELLA's photo

    Alfonso GAMBARDELLA (Professor of Management at the Universita Commerciale "Luigi Bocconi," Milan)

    Bio

    Dr. Gambardella (Ph.D., Stanford 1991) is Professor of Corporate Management at the Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Milan, Italy, and Director of the Ph.D. Program in Business Administration & Management at the same university. He is Associate Editor of Industrial & Corporate Change, Journal of Management and Governance, Research Policy, and one of the founding members of the European Policy for Intellectual Property (EPIP) Association. His research interests are in the economics and management of technology and innovation. He has published in major international journals in this field and participated in several international research projects. He published books with MIT Press, Cambridge University Press, and Oxford University Press. His 2001 book, Markets for Technology (with Ashish Arora and Andrea Fosfuri) is widely cited.

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    Presentation 3 "Incentive System for Inventors"

    OWAN Hideo's photo

    OWAN Hideo (Professor, Graduate School of International Management, Aoyama Gakuin University / Visiting Professor, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University)

    Bio

    Prior to his appointment at Aoyama Gakuin, Dr. Owan taught at the John M. Olin School of Business, Washington University in St. Louis. He worked for Nomura Research Institute as an Economist in Tokyo and New York before starting his graduate studies. Dr. Owan's research spans the theory of the firm, personnel economics, and industrial organization. He received his Ph.D. in Business from Stanford University in 1999; he has an M.A. in Economics from Columbia University and a B.S. in Mathematics from the University of Tokyo. He has published in major international journals such as the Journal of Political Economy , Management Science , and the Journal of Labor Economics .

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    Part 2: Panel Discussion "Future R&D strategy and policy"

    NAGAOKA Sadao's photo

    NAGAOKA Sadao (Research Counselor, RIETI / Director and Professor, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University)

    Panelists: (in alphabetical order)

    AKIMOTO Hiroshi's photo

    AKIMOTO Hiroshi (Managing Director, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.)

    Bio

    Dr. Akimoto is a member of various committees such as the Special Committee for IP Strategy under the Council for Science and Technology Policy. Prior to his current position, he was General Manager of the Intellectual Property Department (1994-2003), and Research Director of Research Laboratories III in charge of anticancer and antibacterial drugs (1992-'94) at Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. He joined Takeda in 1972, and was engaged in research activities at the Pharmacology Research Laboratory. He also conducted research at the University of Pennsylvania (1970-'72) Dr. Akimoto graduated from the University of Tokyo with a Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Science.

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    EZAKI Masahiro's photo

    EZAKI Masahiro (Senior General Manager, Intellectual Property Division, Toyota Motor Corporation)

    Bio

    Prior to his current position, Mr. Ezaki served as General Manager, Intellectual Property Division (1997-2004), Project General Manager, Technical Administration Division (1995-'97), and General Manager, Patent Department (1989-'95). He joined Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (Currently, Toyota Motor Corporation) in 1972 and was assigned to the Patent Administration Division (currently Intellectual Property Division).

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    OSAKABE Nobuyuki's photo

    OSAKABE Nobuyuki (General Manager, Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.)

    Bio

    Dr. Osakabe joined the Central Research Laboratory of Hitachi, Ltd. in 1980, and was engaged in the R&D of electron microscopes, transferred to the Advanced Research Laboratory in 1985. After spending time in the U.S. as a Visiting Research Scientist at Brandeis University from 1986-' 87, he returned to the Advanced Research Laboratory to continue the research. Dr. Osakabe has also taught as a visiting Associate Professor from 1997-'98 and visiting Professor from 1998-2003 at his alma mater, and is currently a visiting Professor at the University of Tokyo. He is a member of the American Physical Society, Physical Society of Japan, The Japan Society of Applied Physics, among others, and also serves as a member of several national committees. He received his B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. in Physics from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1976, 1978, and 1995, respectively.

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    WADA Shuichi's photo

    WADA Shuichi (Counsellor [Science, Technology and Innovation], Cabinet Office)

    Bio

    Prior to Mr. Wada's current position, he served as Director for Distribution Policy Division, Commerce and Distribution Policy Group at METI (2002-'05); Counsellor (Economic), Embassy of Japan (Australia), MOFA (2002-'05); Director, Energy Policy Planning Division, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, METI (2000-'02); Deputy Director, General Coordination Division, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, METI (1997-2000); Deputy Director, Environmental Policy Division, Environmental Protection and Industrial Location Bureau, METI (1995-'97); Harvard University (Center for International Affairs) (1994-'95); Japan Defense Agency (Deputy Director, Defense Policy Division, Defense Policy Bureau)(1990-'95).Mr. Wada joined MITI in1983. He earned a Bachelor of Law from the University of Tokyo, Faculty of Law in 1983.

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    DOI Ryoji's photo

    DOI Ryoji (Consulting Fellow, RIETI / Director, Research and Development Division, Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau, METI)

    Bio

    Prior to his current positions, he served as Director, Competition Enhancement Office, Industrial Organization Division, Economic and Industrial Policy Bureau, METI (2006-'07), Director, Science and Technology Basic Policy Planning, Bureau of Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office (2005-'06), Senior Director, Innovation Strategy Planning, Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau, (2004-'04), Director, R&D Planning, Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau (2003-'04), Special Assistant to the Director General, Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2002-'03). Mr. Doi received his Master of Engineering from the Asian Institute of Technology (1986), and Bachelor in Engineering from the University of Tokyo (1984).
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    WADA Tetsuo's photo

    WADA Tetsuo (Professor, Faculty of Economics, Gakushuin University)

    Bio

    Dr. Wada has been a Professor at Gakushuin University since 2004. He served as Administrative Coordinator, Legal Dept., Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications - Tokyo (1989-'91), Ministry of Finance (1991-'92), and Senior Researcher, Institute for Posts and Telecommunications Policy, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (1996-2000). He served as an Associate Professor at Gakushuin University (2000-'04), then Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Berkeley (2004-'06). Dr. Wada received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Business from the University of California, Berkeley, and his LL.B. from the University of Tokyo. Recent publications: "Licenses and joint ventures as knowledge acquisition mechanisms: Evidence from U.S.-Japan Alliances," (with J. Oxley) in A. Arino and J. Reuer (eds.), Strategic Alliances, Governance and Contracts , Palgrave Macmillan, 2006

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    Bronwyn H. HALL's photo

    Bronwyn H. HALL (Professor, Graduate School, Economics Faculty, University of California, Berkeley / Professor of Economics of Technology and Innovation, University of Maastricht, Netherlands)

    Dietmar HARHOFF's photo

    Dietmar HARHOFF (Director and Professor, Institute for Innovation Research, Technology Management and Entrepreneurship, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich)

    Bio

    Before joining the LMU Munich School of Management in his current position, Professor Harhoff pursued his research at the Center for European Economic Research (ZEW) from 1991-'98, where he served as the Associate Scientific Director from 1995-'98. His research focuses on issues in innovation and entrepreneurship research, intellectual property, industrial economics, and technology management and has been published in a large number of book and journal articles. He serves as an Adviser to numerous public and private organizations.
    Professor Harhoff holds graduate degrees in Mechanical Engineering (University of Dortmund) and Public Administration (M.P.A., Harvard University) and a Ph.D. from the MIT Sloan School of Management.

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    Q&A

    Closing Remarks

    OIKAWA Kozo's photo

    OIKAWA Kozo (Chairman, RIETI)

    Bio

    Prior to his current position, Mr. Oikawa served as Senior Executive Director, Development Bank of Japan (2003-'05); Advisor, Nomura Research Institute, Ltd. (2002-'03); Research Counselor, TEPIA (2002-'03); Commissioner, Japan Patent Office; Director-General, Bureau of Equipment, Japan Defense Agency; Director-General for Policy Coordination, Minister's Secretariat; Councilor, Cabinet Secretariat; Deputy Director-General for Security Export Control, International Trade Administration Bureau; Director, Coordination Division, Bureau of Equipment, Japan Defense Agency; Director, Small Enterprise Policy Division, Small and Medium Enterprise Agency; Counselor, Japanese Mission to European Community, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Director, Paper, Pulp & Printing Division, Consumer Goods Industries Bureau. Mr. Oikawa graduated from the University of Tokyo with a B.A. in Economics.
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    Reception